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Yonsei University

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Author Title
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Volume 6 Number 1 June 2015
The Determinants of Non-Farm Income Diversification in Rural Ethiopia
Author_ Zerihun Berhane WELDEGEBRIEL, Giuseppe FOLLONI & Martin PROWSE
Pages 109-130
Abstract_ Diversification has long been viewed as a risk minimization strategy in the face of increasing climatic and economic risks in developing countries. This paper examines the determinants of non-farm income diversification in rural Ethiopia for a four-wave panel of 1240 households from the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey over the period 1994–2009. The paper makes a conceptual distinction between non-farm and off-farm income and uses fixed and random-effects models to control for unobserved characteristics. The results suggest that the variables that determine non-farm diversification—consumption per capita and livestock holdings—belong to pull factors and reflect a strategy by wealthier households. Coupled with instrumental variable estimations to ascertain the direction of causality, these findings lend support to the argument that the main motivation for increasing non-farm diversification is likely to be accumulation.
Keywords_ Non-farm diversification, Fixed and Random-effects, Rural Ethiopia
Volume 6 Number 1 June 2015
Impact of Smoking on Nutrition and the Food Poverty Level in Tanzania
Author_ Asmerom KIDANE, John MDUMA, Alexis NAHO, & Teh Wei HU
Pages 131-149
Abstract_ This study considers the effect of household cigarette expenditure on food poverty indicators in Tanzania. We first compare expenditure patterns as well as the household size of non-smokers and smokers. We find that the majority of non-smokers and smokers have low incomes, and that the mean total per capita expenditure (proxy for income) of non-smokers is slightly higher than those of smokers. On the other hand, the mean household size of non-smokers was smaller compared to that of smokers suggesting that smokers should have spent more on food. Next, we estimate and compare daily calorie intake between both groups. Almost 19 percent of non-smokers were found to be below the poverty line. The corresponding value for smokers was almost 24 percent. Estimates from a multiple linear regression on the determinants of per capita daily calorie intake reveal that per capita cigarette consumption appears to negatively affect daily calorie intake significantly. Given that the majority of all respondents belong to a low income group, this suggests that expenditure on cigarettes may be at the expense of calorie intake.
Keywords_ Smoking, Nutrition, Calories, Poverty, Tanzania
Volume 5 Number 2 December 2014
The “Great Myanmar Poverty Debate”
Author_ Paul SHAFFER
Pages 1-42
Abstract_ There is a “micro-macro paradox” in poverty measurement. In a number of countries, declines in income or consumption poverty found in nationally representative household survey data are at odds with people’s perceptions of worsening poverty or deprivation more broadly. The objective of this article is to offer a number of potential explanations for this paradox and to present the case of Myanmar where many of these same issues have recently played out. It is argued that there are plausible explanations which reconcile, in part, apparently conflicting positions in Myanmar’s “Great Poverty Debate.”
Keywords_ Poverty, Measurement, Methods, Asia, Myanmar
Volume 5 Number 2 December 2014
Household Incomes and Poverty Dynamics in Rural Kenya: A Panel Data Analysis
Author_ Milu MUYANGA & Phillip MUSYOKA
Pages 43-76
Abstract_ This study uses both descriptive and econometric methods to analyze rural household income and poverty incidences over time and the drivers of welfare dynamics in rural Kenya. The analysis uses balanced panel data from 1,299 households in rural Kenya collected by Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, Egerton University. The results reveal considerable variation in regional welfare dynamics over time in rural Kenya, but with overall decreasing poverty levels between 2000 and 2007. Welfare dynamics are associated with demographic factors such as household dependency burden, and the gender and educational attainment of household heads. Households with high dependency ratios and those under single-female headship are more likely to to transition into poverty. These findings underscore the importance of post-secondary education, access to land, physical infrastructure, markets, and drought shocks for the welfare of rural households.
Keywords_ Poverty, Income Dynamics, Poverty Dynamics, Panel Data, Kenya
Volume 5 Number 2 December 2014
Inclusive Economic Growth in Nepal
Author_ Chandan SAPKOTA
Pages 77-116
Abstract_ Inclusive economic growth is one of the most prominent development agendas. However, a systematic evaluation of progress toward greater inclusivity in the developing countries, and the required strategic foci for the future, remain largely absent from debates in both the academic and policymaking spheres. This paper applies and complements the Asian Development Bank’s inclusive economic growth framework by including an intra-country analysis, and in particular, the convergence and divergence across a range of relevant indicators among consumption quintiles in Nepal. It finds three stark disparities: (i) Nepal’s GDP growth and per capita growth remain the lowest in South Asia; (ii) the slow growth rate has failed to create adequate job opportunities, resulting in large-scale out-migration of workers from all consumption quintiles; and (iii) despite the overall inclusive pattern of growth over the last decade, there remains large disparities in the reach and utilization of social services and economic opportunities among the poorest quintiles. In addition, the pattern of growth could be made more inclusive by creating new opportunities and ensuring that the existing ones are shared more proportionately with the bottom quintiles.
Keywords_ Inclusive Growth, Nepal, Poverty, Employment, Social Protection, Governance
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Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 미래캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

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