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Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University

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Volume 9 Number 2 December 2018
Crypto-governance Blockchain Governance for Sustainable Development Goals 16 and 17
Author_ Reshma Kamath
Pages 111-128
Abstract_ Cryptogovernance, governance on the blockchain, has real, long-lasting potential to impact the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 16 and 17. The idea of Cryptogovernance embeds consensus protocols, rights-based mechanisms and a convergence ecosystem. Through institutional reform via proof of attestation and proof of corruption, blockchain protocols are transforming interactions between people and systems. Several blockchain projects, though nascent and evolving, have instituted such reform (voting, asset tracking, tokenization, ecosystem building), yet development and public sector is lagging behind. This paper helps connect the dots between technology and governance, via a cryptogovernance framework.
Keywords_ Blockchain, Sustainable Development Goals 16 and 17, Cryptogovernance, Proof, Rights, Tokens
 
Volume 9 Number 2 December 2018
South Auckland Sikhs and Punjab Issues: Justice, Identity Work and Development
Author_ Teena Brown Pulu, Harminder Singh, Gurmeet Singh Sarkaria
Pages 129-141
Abstract_ In South Auckland, New Zealand, we surveyed under three hundred Sikhs on how they used their internet-connected mobile phones to gather and share news on the 2019 Punjab elections. Survey participants identified “Punjab issues” as the main topic they communicated messages about on social media. Our paper explores the notion of “Punjab issues” in the context of Sikh social identity and habitus, or the circumstances and conditions of dayto- day existence for this migrant group. We examine how this habitus is underpinned by an interest in justice, which is based in deep historical memory and has persisted over time, as seen in the experiences of events such as the Partition of India in 1947 and the attack on the Golden Temple in 1984, and across space, as more Sikhs migrate from Punjab. Interwoven in the discussion is how the Sikh emphasis on justice fits with the United Nations’ 16th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG16), which underlines that justice and strong institutions determine how well a state practices the social inclusion of minorities by recognising their rights to peace, security, and prosperity.
Keywords_ South Auckland, Punjab, Punjab Elections 2019, Sikh, Habitus, Migrants, Justice, Development
 
Volume 9 Number 2 December 2018
Branch Expansion and Institutional Sustainability of MFIs in Bangladesh
Author_ Farhana Nargis, Mustafa K. Mujer, Farah Muneer
Pages 142-158
Abstract_ Sustainability of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in relation to branch expansion and related decisions has been widely debated in the microfinance sector. The present study explores the factors that are taken into consideration by the MFIs in Bangladesh while opening a new branch. Specifically, the study examines the locational considerations relating to branch expansion and implications relating to service delivery and other MFI operations. The analysis covers both head office and branch level information collected using stratified random sampling approach ensuring proportional representation of small, medium and large MFIs. The study finds locational characteristics and number of potential borrowers as the most important factors while deciding on opening a new branch.The decision on branch location responds to three main considerations: (i) reducing cost of loan operation; (ii) serving target people in remote areas; and (iii) implementing targeted programs. It is seen that very large and medium categories of MFIs have greater incentives for branch expansion relative to large and small categories while larger MFIs tend to establish new branches close to growth centres.
Keywords_ Branch expansion, MFIs, Sustainability, Location
 
Volume 9 Number 2 December 2018
Impact of Irrigation on Household Multidimensional Poverty Reduction in the Koga Irrigation Development Project, Northern Ethiopia
Author_ Koyachew Enkuahone Kassie, Bamlak Alamirew Alemu, Aseffa Seyoum Wedajoo
Pages 159-187
Abstract_ Agriculture remains the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy. However, the sector is affected by climate change induced extreme weather events that aggravates rural poverty. As a result, the Ethiopian government has been making different interventions to alleviate poverty. Koga irrigation development project (KIDP) is one of such initiatives. However, due to political unrest, poor water management practice, limited market linkages and other institutional challenges, the project has not reached its desired goals. This paper is thus intended to evaluate the efficacy of the KIDP to reduce poverty. Data were collected from 395 sample farm households (220 irrigators and 175 non-irrigators) drawn using multi-stage sampling technique. Multidimensional poverty index and endogenous switching regression model were employed to measure poverty and estimate the impact of irrigation on household poverty, respectively. The study found that poverty intensity and multidimensional poverty index of the study area were lower than the national and regional averages. Nonetheless, the trend of poverty reduction was not evenly progressed in irrigator and non-irrigator households. The proportion of non-irrigator poor and MPI poor households were greater than irrigators. The endogenous switching model and key informant interviews proved that irrigation has positive impact on multidimensional household poverty reduction. However, the incidence of poverty among the sample households, regardless of access to irrigation, is still higher. This implies access to irrigation should be accompanied by institutional supports and complementary production inputs. So as to excel the impact of irrigation, the government shall also expand the technology over non-irrigated areas.
Keywords_ Irrigation, Household, Multidimensional poverty index, Switching regression
 
Volume 9 Number 2 December 2018
Poverty, Income Inequality and Determinants of Income of the Ethnic Communities of Bangladesh
Author_ Pangkoj Nokrek, Basanta Kumar Barmon, Sanzidur Rahman
Pages 188-201
Abstract_ The study examines the levels of poverty, income inequality and determinants of income of five major ethnic communities (i.e., Chakma, Garo, Khasi, Marma and Tripura) of Bangladesh using a survey data of 250 households. Results revealed that agriculture constitutes 72.6% of the total income followed by salaried employment at 13.4% and off-farm income at 6.1%. The amount of cultivated land, the share of land rented-in and the number of working family members significantly increase agricultural income whereas education, the number of working family members and experience significantly increase non-agricultural income. Income is significantly higher for the Garo and Khasi communities and lower for the Tripura community. Income inequality varies across communities with high level of inequality amongst the Khasi and Garo communities (Gini coefficient 0.39 and 0.35) while the Chama, Marma and Tripura communities have a low and similar level of inequality (Gini coefficient 0.23-0.26). Poverty level is high for the Garo community and low for the Chakma and Marma communities. However, the depth of poverty is highest for the Tripura community. Policy implications include investment in education and land and tenurial reform measuresto consolidate farm size as well as smooth functioning of the land rental market in order to increase agricultural and/or total household income of the ethnic communities.
Keywords_ Ethnic communities, Income inequality, Poverty, Determinants of income, Multivariate regression model, Bangladesh
 
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IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 미래캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

Phone: +82-33-760-2534, 760-2577, 760-2554, 760-2527  |  Fax: +82-33-760-2572  |  E-mail: ipaid@yonsei.ac.kr

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